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A methodology for industrial water footprint assessment using energy–water–carbon nexus

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dc.contributor.author Trubetskaya, Anna
dc.contributor.author Horan, William
dc.contributor.author Conheady, Paul
dc.contributor.author Stockil, Ken
dc.contributor.author Moore, Sean B.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-02-22T12:18:05Z
dc.date.available 2021-02-22T12:18:05Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/9803
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract Recent national government policy in Ireland proposes a radical transformation of the energy sector and a large reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050. Water and energy form the water– energy nexus, with water being an essential component in energy production. However, the connection between the production of energy and water is rarely made. In particular, the end‐user processes are generally excluded because they occur outside the water industry. The present study includes two simple approaches for industrial sites to calculate their carbon footprint in the water sector. The assessment of the milk powder manufacturing using both approaches indicates that the combined emission factor of the water supply and treatment is approximately 1.28 kg CO2 m–3 of water. The dairy production among steel, textile, and paper industries appears to be the most carbon‐emitting industry. However, the results show that the carbon intensity of the water supply and treatment can be minimized by the integration of renewable energy sources for the onsite heat/steam and electricity generation. The uniqueness of our approaches compared to calculations illustrated by the ecoinvent and other governmental databases is its simplicity and a focus on the main energy consuming manufacturing steps in the entire industrial process. We believe that the management of water and energy resources will be more efficient when “active water citizens” raise environmental awareness through promoting measures regarding data monitoring and collection, observed leaks and damages, dissimilation and exchange of information on sustainable water stewardship to public and various industrial stakeholders. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Processes;9, 393
dc.subject active water citizen en_US
dc.subject emission factor en_US
dc.subject wastewater en_US
dc.title A methodology for industrial water footprint assessment using energy–water–carbon nexus en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/pr9020393
dc.contributor.sponsor EPA Research en_US
dc.relation.projectid 2019‐W‐LS‐21 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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