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Life cycle assessment of renewable reductants in the ferromanganese alloy production: a review

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dc.contributor.author Surup, Gerrit Ralf
dc.contributor.author Trubetskaya, Anna
dc.contributor.author Tangstad, Merete
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-22T14:15:07Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-22T14:15:07Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/9639
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract This study examined the literature on life cycle assessment on the ferromanganese alloy production route. The environmental impacts of raw material acquisition through the production of carbon reductants to the production of ferromanganese alloys were examined and compared. The transition from the current fossil fuel-based production to a more sustainable production route was reviewed. Besides the environmental impact, policy and socioeconomic impacts were considered due to evaluation course of differences in the production routes. Charcoal has the potential to substantially replace fossil fuel reductants in the upcoming decades. The environmental impact from current ferromanganese alloy production can be reduced by ≥20% by the charcoal produced in slow pyrolysis kilns, which can be further reduced by ≥50% for a sustainable production in high-efficient retorts. Certificated biomass can ensure a sustainable growth to avoid deforestation and acidification of the environment. Although greenhouse gas emissions from transport are low for the ferromanganese alloy production, they may increase due to the low bulk density of charcoal and the decentralized production of biomass. However, centralized charcoal retorts can provide additional by-products or biofuel and ensure better product quality for the industrial application. Further upgrading of charcoal can finally result in a CO2 neutral ferromanganese alloy production for the renewable power supply. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Processes;9, 185
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010185
dc.subject charcoal en_US
dc.subject life cycle assessment en_US
dc.subject sustainable biomass growth en_US
dc.subject mining en_US
dc.subject metallurgical coke en_US
dc.title Life cycle assessment of renewable reductants in the ferromanganese alloy production: a review en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/pr9010185
dc.contributor.sponsor Research Council of Norway en_US
dc.relation.projectid 280968 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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