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Charcoal as an alternative reductant in ferroalloy production: A review

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dc.contributor.author Surup, Gerrit Ralf
dc.contributor.author Trubetskaya, Anna
dc.contributor.author Tangstad, Merete
dc.date.accessioned 2020-11-16T09:59:30Z
dc.date.available 2020-11-16T09:59:30Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/9459
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract This paper provides a fundamental and critical review of biomass application as renewable reductant in integrated ferroalloy reduction process. The basis for the review is based on the current process and product quality requirement that bio-based reductants must fulfill. The characteristics of different feedstocks and suitable pre-treatment and post-treatment technologies for their upgrading are evaluated. The existing literature concerning biomass application in ferroalloy industries is reviewed to fill out the research gaps related to charcoal properties provided by current production technologies and the integration of renewable reductants in the existing industrial infrastructure. This review also provides insights and recommendations to the unresolved challenges related to the charcoal process economics. Several possibilities to integrate the production of bio-based reductants with bio-refineries to lower the cost and increase the total efficiency are given. A comparison of challenges related to energy efficient charcoal production and formation of emissions in classical kiln technologies are discussed to underline the potential of bio-based reductant usage in ferroalloy reduction process. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Processes;8, 1432
dc.subject charcoal en_US
dc.subject pyrolysis en_US
dc.subject bio-based reductant en_US
dc.title Charcoal as an alternative reductant in ferroalloy production: A review en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/pr8111432
dc.contributor.sponsor Research Council of Norway en_US
dc.relation.projectid 280968 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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