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Outdoor walking speeds of apparently healthy adults: A systematic review and  meta‑analysis

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dc.contributor.author Murtagh, Elaine M.
dc.contributor.author Mair, Jacqueline L.
dc.contributor.author Aguiar, Elroy
dc.contributor.author Tudor‑Locke, Catrine
dc.contributor.author Murphy, Marie H.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-10-20T10:53:54Z
dc.date.available 2020-10-20T10:53:54Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net.proxy.lib.ul.ie/10344/9349
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract Background Walking outdoors can be used by many individuals to meet public health guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The speed at which adults walk may be a proxy for intensity. Traditional estimates of indoor walking speed are unlikely to reflect self-selected usual or other instructed paces of outdoor walking speed. Objective To inform estimates of pace-based walking speed of apparently healthy adults in outdoor settings. Methods We searched four electronic databases for articles published in English between January 1970 and March 2019. Studies that reported walking speed (m/s), cadence (steps/min), or intensity(mL/kg/min) of ambulatory, apparently healthy, and community-dwelling adults (> 18 years) were included. Walking speed categories were defined according to the description provided in each study. Meta-analysis was used to synthesise speed, cadence, and intensity data by slow, usual, medium, fast, and maximal pace (where reported). Results Thirty-five studies, representing 14,015 participants (6808 women, 5135 men, and 2072 sex not specified), were identified. The mean (95% CI) walking speed for slow, usual, medium, fast, and maximal pace was 0.82 (0.77–0.86), 1.31 (1.27–1.35), 1.47 (1.44–1.49), 1.72 (1.64–1.81), and 1.62 (1.45–1.79) m/s, respectively. Mean cadence (95% CI) for usual and fast paces were 116.65 (114.95–118.35) and 126.75 (121.87–131.63) steps/min, respectively. The mean oxygen consumption (95% CI) for the usual and medium paces was 11.97 (11.69–12.25) and 13.34 (12.94–13.73) mL/kg/min, respectively. Conclusion These findings provide greater clarity with regard to how various indicators of enacted walking pace, speed, and intensity overlap and how each can be best communicated in the real-world setting to optimise health-related outcomes. Pace-based instructions can be used to support walking in outdoor settings within public health guidelines. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Springer en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Sports Medicine;
dc.subject Walking outdoors en_US
dc.subject synthesise speed en_US
dc.title Outdoor walking speeds of apparently healthy adults: A systematic review and  meta‑analysis en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1007/s40279-020-01351-3
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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