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Do static and dynamic activities induce potentially damaging breast skin strain?

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dc.contributor.author Norris, Michelle
dc.contributor.author Mills, Chris
dc.contributor.author Sanchez, Amy
dc.contributor.author Wakefield-Scurr, Joanna
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-22T08:14:16Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-22T08:14:16Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/9025
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract This study aimed to quantify breast skin strain and strain rate and the effect of support garments at reducing strain and to determine characteristics that correlate with strain during static and dynamic activity. Methods 39 women (UK size 32C to 36G) had electromagnetic sensors applied to their breast skin. Sensor coordinates were recorded while standing, walking, running, in no, low and high breast support conditions, plus bare-breasted in the estimated neutral position to calculate strain. Relative breast coordinates and 35 inter-sensor distances identified peak breast skin strain (%) and strain rate (%·s-1), which were then correlated with nipple kinematics, breast pain and participant characteristics. Results Mean peak breast skin strain was generally <60% during standing, walking and running; however, some individuals exhibited 93% strain in bare-breasted running. Compared with low support, high support did not further reduce strain during standing and walking. Peak breast skin strain/strain rate location was longitudinal, in lateral and medial breast regions and displayed strong correlations with breast volume, body mass index and bust circumference. Conclusion Static and dynamic activity did not result in excessive breast skin strain, suggesting low risk of skin damage. However, during running, some individuals experienced excessive skin strains (up to 93%) and strain rates (up to 1258%·s-1). Breast skin strain/strain rate location suggests lift is required in the lateral and medial bra cup to reduce strain, particularly in larger breast volumes due to increased skin strain risk. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher BMJ Publishing Group en_US
dc.relation 754489 en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine;6, e000770
dc.subject breast skin strain en_US
dc.subject correlate en_US
dc.subject nipple kinematics en_US
dc.title Do static and dynamic activities induce potentially damaging breast skin strain? en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000770
dc.contributor.sponsor SFI en_US
dc.contributor.sponsor Marie Skłodowska-Curie en_US
dc.relation.projectid 13/RC/2094 en_US
dc.relation.projectid 754489 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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