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An evaluation of the general composition and critical raw material content of bauxite residue in a storage area over a twelve-year period

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dc.contributor.author Cusack, Patricia B.
dc.contributor.author Courtney, Ronan
dc.contributor.author Healy, Mark G.
dc.contributor.author O'Donoghue, Lisa M.T.
dc.contributor.author Ujaczki, Éva
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-03T14:12:39Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.issn 0959-6526
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/7809
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 9/10/2020
dc.description.abstract Bauxite residue, the by-product produced in the alumina industry, is being produced at an estimated global rate of approximately 150 million tonnes per annum. Currently, the reuse of bauxite residue is low (∼2%), due to limitations associated with its alkalinity, salinity, low solid content, fine particle size and potential leaching of metal(loid)s. It has been identified as a potential secondary source for critical raw materials such as vanadium, gallium and scandium, which currently have an associated supply risk and high economic cost within Europe. However, there is an uncertainty regarding the possible variation in these and other physico-chemical, elemental and mineralogical parameters within bauxite residue disposal areas. This paper aimed to address this knowledge gap by examining the variation of these parameters in a bauxite residue disposal area (BRDA) over a twelve-year period. The general composition did not vary greatly within the bauxite residue examined, with the exception of pH and electrical conductivity, which ranged from 10 ± 0.1 to 12.0 ± 0.02 and from 0.4 ± 0.01 to 3.3 ± 0.2 mS cm−1, respectively. The bauxite residue contained critical raw materials, of which the amount of vanadium, gallium and scandium did not vary significantly over time. The vanadium and gallium were present in larger amounts compared to other European bauxite residues. On average the vanadium, gallium and scandium content measured in the bauxite residue samples were 510 ± 77.8, 107 ± 7.3 and 51.4 ± 5.4 mg kg−1, respectively. This shows promise for the potential reuse of bauxite residue as a secondary source for critical raw materials and also indicates that BRDAs may be potential mines for critical raw material extraction. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Cleaner Production;208, pp. 393-401
dc.rights This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Cleaner Production. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, 208, pp. 393-401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.083 en_US
dc.subject bauxite residue en_US
dc.subject bauxite residue disposal area en_US
dc.subject reuse value en_US
dc.subject critical raw materials en_US
dc.title An evaluation of the general composition and critical raw material content of bauxite residue in a storage area over a twelve-year period en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.date.updated 2019-05-03T14:05:55Z
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.083
dc.contributor.sponsor EPA en_US
dc.relation.projectid 2014-RE-MS-1 en_US
dc.date.embargoEndDate 2020-10-09
dc.embargo.terms 2020-10-09 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/embargoedAccess en_US
dc.internal.rssid 2869478
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes
dc.identifier.journaltitle Journal Of Cleaner Production
dc.description.status peer-reviewed


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