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Thermal effects of mobile phones on human auricle region

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dc.contributor.author Baurer, Joanna
dc.contributor.author O'Mahony, Charlie
dc.contributor.author Chovan, Drahomir
dc.contributor.author Mulcahy, John
dc.contributor.author Silien, Christophe
dc.contributor.author Tofail, Syed A.M.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-12-13T15:58:02Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/7415
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract Mobile phones have become an indispensable utility to modern society, with international use increasing dramatically each year. The GSM signal operates at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2250 MHz, may potentially cause harm to human tissue. Yet there is no in silico model to aid design these devices to protect from causing potential thermal effect. Here we present a model of sources of heating in a mobile phone device with experimental verification during the phone call. We have developed this mobile phone thermal model using first principles on COMSOL® Multiphysics modelling platform to simulate heating effect in human auricle region due to mobile phone use. In particular, our model considered both radiative and non-radiative heating from components such as the lithium ion battery, CPU circuitry and the antenna. The model showed the distribution and effect of the heating effect due to mobile phone use and considered impact of battery discharge rate, battery capacity, battery cathode material, biological tissue distance, antenna radio-wave frequency and intensity. Furthermore, the lithium ion battery heating was validated during experiments using temperature sensors with an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental data (<1% variation). Mobile phone heating during a typical call has also been simulated and compared with experimental infrared thermographic imaging. Importantly, we found that 1800 MHz frequency of data transmission showed the highest temperature increase in the fat/water phantom used in this simulation. We also successfully compared heating distribution in human auricle region during mobile phone use with clinical thermographic images with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreements. In summary, our model provides a foundation to conceive thermal and other physical effects caused by mobile phone use and allow for the understanding of potential negative health effects thus supporting and promoting personalized and preventive medicine using thermography. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Thermal Biology;79, pp. 56-68
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.11.008
dc.rights This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Thermal Biology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Thermal Biology, 2018, 79, pp. 56-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.11.008 en_US
dc.subject biological heat transfer en_US
dc.subject thermal model en_US
dc.subject mobile phone en_US
dc.subject health impact of mobile phone en_US
dc.subject IR thermography en_US
dc.subject personalized and preventive medicine en_US
dc.title Thermal effects of mobile phones on human auricle region en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.11.008
dc.date.embargoEndDate 2019-11-14
dc.embargo.terms 2019-11-14 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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