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Unemployment is associated with lower cortisol awakening and blunted dehydroepiandrosterone responses

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dc.contributor.author Gallagher, Stephen
dc.contributor.author Summer, Rachel C.
dc.contributor.author Muldoon, Orla T.
dc.contributor.author Creaven, Ann-Marie
dc.contributor.author Hannigan, Ailish
dc.date.accessioned 2017-11-27T16:13:54Z
dc.date.available 2017-11-27T16:13:54Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/6298
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract Previous research has investigated the endocrinological consequences of unemployment as a likely pathway behind chronic stress and negative health outcomes. Despite these early attempts at delineating the neuroendocrine consequences of the chronic stress experienced by the unemployed, identifying a consistent and stable effect has remained elusive. Here we sought to strengthen existing knowledge into the effect of the stress of employment status on cortisol by improving on the methodological weaknesses of earlier studies and extend this line of enquiry by measuring the steroid hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate (DHEAS). Saliva samples were collected from unemployed and employed participants at four time points across two days. As expected, unemployed people reported higher stress, lower social support and lower self-esteem. Unexpectedly, the unemployed showed lower overall cortisol output, a likely consequence of a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) in the employed. However, they also had a higher DHEA output across the day, albeit the diurnal pattern across the day was more dysregulated compared to that seen in those employed with a blunted response evident in the evening; the cortisol:DHEAS ratio was also lower in the unemployed group. Further, these hormone differences were correlated with self-esteem and stress. Taken together these results suggest that the relationship between employment status and endocrine responses is far more complicated than previously thought. We have shown for the first time that unemployed people have a lower CAR, but also show a blunted DHEA response relative to those employed and we suggest that this may be a feature of chronic stress exposure or perhaps dependent on the prevailing socio-economic context. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Psychoneuroendocrinology;69, pp. 41-49
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.03.011
dc.rights This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Psychoneuroendocrinolog . Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2016, 69, pp. 41-49, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.03.011 en_US
dc.subject chronic stress en_US
dc.subject cortisol en_US
dc.subject DHEAS en_US
dc.subject employment en_US
dc.subject stress en_US
dc.title Unemployment is associated with lower cortisol awakening and blunted dehydroepiandrosterone responses en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.date.updated 2017-11-27T16:05:27Z
dc.description.version ACCEPTED
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.03.011
dc.contributor.sponsor IRC en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US
dc.internal.rssid 1645029
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes
dc.identifier.journaltitle Psychoneuroendocrinology
dc.description.status peer-reviewed


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