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Does circular reuse of chickpea cooking water to produce vegan mayonnaise reduce environmental impact compared with egg mayonnaise?

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dc.contributor.author Saget, Sophie
dc.contributor.author Costa, Marcela P.
dc.contributor.author Styles, David
dc.contributor.author Williams, Michael
dc.date.accessioned 2021-06-04T07:26:35Z
dc.date.available 2021-06-04T07:26:35Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10344/10138
dc.description peer-reviewed en_US
dc.description.abstract Consumers are increasingly asking for foods that are healthier, more humane, and environmentally sustainable. Recently, chickpea cooking water—aquafaba—has gained popularity as a potential egg substitute that complies with these criteria. However, research on the environmental impact of this ingredient is lacking. We performed a comparative attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of mayonnaise made with aquafaba as the emulsifying agent, and traditional mayonnaise made with egg yolk. The vegan mayonnaise was found not to be as environmentally sustainable as the egg-based product. The vegan mayonnaise had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower impact across 4 categories, but a significantly higher impact across 8 categories out of 16, including climate change and resource-use-energy-carriers. The majority of categories under which vegan mayonnaise underperformed were related to the electricity needed for aquafaba processing. These impacts can be mitigated with a “cleaner” electricity grid, or onsite renewable electricity generation. Substituting the Mexican grid, where the aquafaba is currently processed, for the Canadian grid, where the mayonnaise is produced, reduced the carbon footprint of the vegan mayonnaise by 37%, making it similar to the egg-based product. As sunflower oil production was linked to extensive environmental burdens, we performed additional sensitivity analyses around oil processing, sunflower production, and other vegetable oils. Our study shows that substituting egg yolk with aquafaba could cause an increase in the environmental footprint of mayonnaise due to high processing costs, illustrating that vegan options do not always have a smaller environmental footprint, and can represent a trade-off in their comparatively more humane and healthier offer. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Sustainability;13, 4726
dc.subject comparative life cycle assessment en_US
dc.title Does circular reuse of chickpea cooking water to produce vegan mayonnaise reduce environmental impact compared with egg mayonnaise? en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article en_US
dc.type.supercollection all_ul_research en_US
dc.type.supercollection ul_published_reviewed en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/su13094726
dc.contributor.sponsor Horizon 2020 en_US
dc.contributor.sponsor ERC
dc.relation.projectid 727973 en_US
dc.rights.accessrights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess en_US


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